110 71. Mandibulate mouthparts 72

Mouthparts formed for piercing and sucking 73

72. Mouth inferior; cerci long; ectoparasites of bats or rodents

Rare DERMAPTERA* (Page 175)

Mouth anterior; no cerci; generally elongate-oval insects with somewhat triangular head; ectoparasites of birds (occasionally mammals). Chewing lice PHTHIRAPTERA, in part (Page 203)

73. Antennae exserted, visible, though rather short 74

Antennae inserted in pits, not visible from above (also larval maggots, without antennae) Pupiparous DIPTERA (Page 243)

74. Beak (mouthparts) unjointed; tarsi formed as a hook for grasping hairs of the host (Figure 3.24C); permanent parasites. Sucking lice

PHTHIRAPTERA, in part (Page 203)

Beak jointed; tarsi not hooked; temporary parasites Some HEMIPTERA (Page 210)

75. Legless grubs, maggots or borers; locomotion effected by a squirming motion Larvae of STREPSIPTERA* (Page 326);

SIPHONAPTERA (Page 264); and of some COLEOPTERA (Page 305) (see also couplet 56); DIPTERA (Page 243); LEPIDOPTERA (Page 276); and HYMENOPTERA (Page 330). (If living in body of wasps and bees, with flattened head exposed, compare females of STREPSIPTERA* (Page 326); if aquatic wrigglers, see larvae and pupae of mosquitoes, etc.) Sedentary forms, incapable of locomotion 76

76. Small degraded forms bearing little superficial resemblance to insects, with long slender beak, and usually covered with a waxy scale, powder, or cottony tufts; living on various plants. Scale insects

HEMIPTERA (Page 210)

Body quiescent, but able to bend from side to side; not capable of feeding, enclosed in a skin which is tightly drawn over all appendages, or which leaves limbs free but folded against body; sometimes free; sometimes enclosed in cocoon or in shell formed from dried larval skins 77

77. Skin encasing legs, wings, etc., holding appendages tightly against body; prothorax small; proboscis showing 78

Legs, wings, etc., more or less free from body; biting mouthparts showing 79

78. Proboscis usually long, rarely absent; four wing cases; sometimes in cocoon Pupae of LEPIDOPTERA (Page 276)

Proboscis short; two wing cases, pupa often enclosed in oval shell

(puparium) formed of hardened larval skin

Pupae of DIPTERA (Page 243)

79. Prothorax small, fused into one piece with mesothorax; sometimes enclosed in loose cocoon Pupae of HYMENOPTERA (Page 330)

Prothorax larger and not closely fused with mesothorax 80

80. Wing cases with few or no veins Pupae of COLEOPTERA (Page 305)

Wing cases with several branched veins

Pupae of NEUROPTERA (Page 301)

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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