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108 Usually much larger species; tarsi usually with more than three joints, or, if not, body is hard and heavily sclerotized and cerci are absent 46

45. Cerci absent. Book lice PSOCOPTERA (Page 199)

Cerci unjointed, prominent ZORAPTERA* (Page 195)

46. Hind femora enlarged; wing pads of larva when present in inverse position, that is, metathoracic overlapping mesothoracic ORTHOPTERA (Page 184)

Hind legs not enlarged for jumping; wing pads, if present, in normal position 47

47. Prothorax much longer than mesothorax; front legs fitted for grasping prey. Mantids DICTYOPTERA, Suborder MANTODEA (Page 161)

Prothorax not greatly lengthened 48

48. Cerci present; antennae usually with more than 15 subdivisions, often multiply subdivided 49

No cerci; body often hard-shelled; antennae usually with 11 subdivisions. Beetles COLEOPTERA (Page 305)

49. Cerci with more than three joints 50

Cerci short, with one to three joints 52

50. Body flattened and oval; head inflexed; prothorax oval. Cockroaches DICTYOPTERA, Suborder BLATTODEA (Page 160)

Body elongate; head nearly horizontal 51

51. Cerci long; ovipositor rigid and exserted; tarsi five-jointed GRYLLOBLATTODEA* (Page 173)

Cerci short; no ovipositor; tarsi four-jointed; social forms, living in colonies. Termites ISOPTERA (Page 163)

52. Tarsi five-jointed; body usually very slender and long. Stick insects PHASMIDA (Page 179)

Tarsi two- or three-jointed; body not elongate 53

53. Front tarsi with first joint swollen, containing a silk-spinning gland, producing a web in which the insects live; body long and slender. Webspinners EMBIOPTERA* (Page 153)

Front tarsi not swollen, without silk-spinning gland; body much stouter; social species. Termites ISOPTERA (Page 163)

54. Body cylindrical, caterpillarlike 55

Body more or less depressed, not caterpillarlike 56

55. Head with six ocelli on each side; labium with spinnerets; antennae inserted in membranous area at base of mandibles Larvae of some LEPIDOPTERA (Page 276)

Head with more than six ocelli on each side; metathoracic legs distinctly larger than prothoracic legs

Larvae of Boreidae (MECOPTERA) (Page 239)

56. Mandibles united with corresponding maxillae to form sucking organs Larvae of NEUROPTERA (Page 301)

Mandibles almost always separate from maxillae

Larvae of COLEOPTERA (Page 305);

RAPHIDIOPTERA (Page 299); STREPSIPTERA * (Page 326); DIPTERA (Page 243)

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