104 7. Hind femora not larger than fore femora; body more or less flattened with wings superposed when at rest; tergites and sternites subequal 8

Hind femora almost always much larger than fore femora, jumping species, if not (Gryllotalpidae) front legs broadened for burrowing; species usually capable of chirping or making a creaking noise; body more or less cylindrical, wings held sloping against sides of the body when at rest, tergites usually larger than sternites. Grasshoppers, katydids, crickets ORTHOPTERA (Page 184)

8. Body elongate; head free, not concealed from above by the prothorax;

deliberate movers 9

Body oval, much flattened; head nearly concealed beneath the oval pronotum; legs identical, coxae large and tibiae noticeably spiny or bristly



9. Prothorax much longer than mesothorax; front legs almost always heavily spined, formed for seizing prey; cerci usually with several joints. Mantids DICTYOPTERA, Suborder MANTODEA (Page 161)

Prothorax short; legs similar, formed for walking; cerci unjointed.

Stick and leaf insects PHASMIDA (Page 179)

10. Abdomen terminated by movable, almost always heavily chitinized forceps; antennae long and slender; fore wings short, leaving most of abdomen uncovered, hind wings nearly circular, delicate, radially folded from near the center; elongate insects. Earwigs


Abdomen not terminated by forceps; antennae of various forms but usually with 11 subdivisions; fore wings usually completely sheathing the abdomen; generally hard-bodied species. Beetles


11. With four wings 12

With only mesothoracic wings, usually outspread when at rest 29

12. Wings long, very narrow, the margins fringed with long hairs, almost veinless; tarsi 1- or 2-jointed, with swollen tips; mouthparts asymmetrical without biting mandibles, fitted for lacerating and sucking plant tissues; no cerci; minute species.

Thrips THYSANOPTERA (Page 233)

Wings broader and most often with veins; if wings rarely somewhat linear, tarsi have more than two joints and last tarsal joint is not swollen 13

13. Wings, legs, and body covered, at least in part, with elongate flattened scales (often intermixed with hairs) that nearly always form a color pattern on the wings; mouthparts (rarely vestigial) forming a coiled tongue composed of the maxillae; biting mandibles present only in Micropterigidae. Moths and butterflies LEPIDOPTERA (Page 276)

Wings, legs, and body not covered with scales, although sometimes hairy and having a few scales intermixed; sometimes covered with bristles, especially on legs, or rarely with wax flakes or dust; color pattern when present extending to wing membrane 14

14. Hind wings with anal area separated, folded fanlike when at rest, nearly 105

always wider and noticeably larger than fore wings; antennae prominent;

.. „ J b fe > f > SYSTEMATICS AND wing veins usually numerous 15 TAXONOMY

Hind wings without a separated anal area, not folded and not larger than fore wings 17

15. Tarsi five-jointed; cerci not pronounced 16

Tarsi three-jointed; cerci well developed, usually long and many jointed; prothorax large, free; species of moderate to large size.

Stoneflies PLECOPTERA (Page 147)

16. Wings with a number of subcostal crossveins; prothorax rather large;

species of moderate to large size. Alderflies


Wings without subcostal crossveins, with surface hairy; pro thorax small; species of small to moderate size. Caddisflies


17. Antennae short and inconspicuous; wings netveined with numerous crossveins; mouthparts mandibulate 18

Antennae large; if antennae small, wings have few crossveins or mouthparts form a jointed sucking beak 19

18. Hind wings much smaller than fore wings; abdomen ending in long threadlike processes; tarsi normally four- or five-jointed; sluggish fliers. Mayflies EPHEMEROPTERA (Page 127)

Hind wings nearly like fore wings; no caudal setae; tarsi three-jointed;

vigorous, active fliers, often of large size. Dragonflies, damselflies

ODONATA (Page 136)

19. Head elongated ventrally forming a rostrum, at tip of which are mandibulate mouthparts; hind wings not folded; wings usually with color pattern, crossveins numerous; male genitalia usually greatly swollen, forming a reflexed bulb. Scorpionflies

MECOPTERA (Page 239)

Head not drawn out as a mandibulate rostrum; male abdomen not forcipate 20

20. Mouthparts modified for sucking (occasionally reduced or absent);

mandibles absent or in form of long bristles; no cerci; crossveins few 21

Mouthparts for biting [occasionally for sucking (higher

Hymenoptera)]; mandibles always present and having typical biting form 22

21. Wings not covered with scales, not outspread when at rest; prothorax large; antennae with few subdivisions; mouthparts forming a jointed piercing beak. Bugs HEMIPTERA (Page 210)

Wings and body covered with colored scales that form a definite pattern on wings; antennae greatly subdivided; mouthparts when present forming a coiled tongue. Moths and butterflies


22. Tarsi five-jointed; if rarely three- or four-jointed, hind wings are smaller than front ones and wings lie flat over body; no cerci 23

Tarsi two-, three-, or four-jointed; veins and crossveins not numerous 26

23. Prothorax small or only moderately long. (In Mantispidae prothorax is very long, but front legs are strongly raptorial.) 24

Prothorax very long and cylindrical, much longer than head; front legs normal; antennae with more than 11 subdivisions; crossveins numerous. Snakeflies RAPHIDIOPTERA (Page 299)

24. Wings similar, with many veins and crossveins; prothorax more or less free 25

Wings with relatively few angular cells, costal cell without crossveins; hind wings smaller than fore pair; prothorax fused with mesothorax; abdomen frequently constricted at base and ending in a sting or specialized ovipositor. Ants, wasps, bees, etc


25. Costal cell, at least in fore wing, almost always with many crossveins. Lacewings, antlions NEUROPTERA (Page 301)

Costal cell without crossveins. Scorpionflies MECOPTERA (Page 239)

26. Wings equal in size, or rarely hind wings larger, held superposed on top of abdomen when at rest; media fused with radial sector for a short distance near middle of wing; tarsi three-, four-, or five-jointed 27

Hind wings smaller than fore wings; wings held at rest folded back against abdomen; radius and media not fusing; tarsi two- or three-jointed 28

27. Tarsi apparently four-jointed; cerci usually minute; wings with a transverse preformed suture near the base; social species, living in colonies. Termites ISOPTERA (Page 163)

Tarsi three-jointed, front metatarsi swollen; cerci conspicuous; usually solitary species. Webspinners EMBIOPTERA* (Page 153)

28. Cerci absent; tarsi two- or three-jointed; wings remaining attached throughout life; radial sector and media branched, except when fore wings are much thickened. Book lice PSOCOPTERA (Page 199)

Cerci present; tarsi two-jointed; wings shed at maturity, venation greatly reduced; radial sector and media simple, unbranched

ZORAPTERA* (Page 195)

29. Mouthparts not functional; abdomen with a pair of caudal filaments 30

Mouthparts forming a proboscis, only exceptionally vestigial; abdomen without caudal filaments; hind wings replaced by knobbed halteres.

True flies DIPTERA (Page 243)

30. No halteres; antennae inconspicuous; cross veins abundant. A few rare mayflies EPHEMEROPTERA (Page 127)

Hind wings represented by minute hooklike halteres; antennae evident; venation reduced to a forked vein; crossveins lacking; minute delicate insects. Males of scale insects HEMIPTERA (Page 210)

31. Body with more or less distinct head, thorax and abdomen, and jointed legs; capable of locomotion 32

Without distinct body parts or without jointed legs, or incapable of locomotion 75

32. Terrestrial, breathing through spiracles; rarely without special respiratory organs 33

Aquatic, usually gill-breathing, larval forms 62

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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