116 and behavioral adaptations, such as scales or hairs, specific desiccation-resistant stages

(including more or less completely dried out "anhydrobiotic" forms), and activity restricted to periods when the relative humidity is high. Collembola are saprophagous, fungivorous (including some spore feeders), or phytophagous (including some pollen feeders), and some species appear to have an intrinsic gut cellulase. Only rarely are they predaceous. Though a few species are occasionally of economic importance because of the damage they cause to plants, overall Collembola may be considered beneficial. By feeding on fungal hyphae and decaying material, they may influence mycorrhizal growth and control fungal diseases (Hopkin, 1997).

In adult Collembola reproductive and feeding instars alternate. Most species of Collembola reproduce sexually though a few soil-dwelling species are parthenogenetic. Sperm transfer is usually indirect, males placing their stalked spermatophores on the substrate, to be found by females as a result of aggregation (perhaps involving pheromones) or after an elaborate courtship dance in which the male grasps the female using spines on his antennae, head, or legs, and draws her over the spermatophore. The pale, spherical eggs are laid singly or in small clusters (sometimes several females oviposit collectively) and may be covered with freshly eaten soil and fecal material, or cleaned by the adults, to prevent fungal infection. There is little change in external form as the young animal develops, and sexual maturity is reached usually after 5-10 molts. As many as 50 molts may occur during the adult phase.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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