200 whereas the lacinia is a narrow, sclerotized rod (the pick), which may be used to scrape food from the substrate. The hypopharynx, which is able to take up water from the atmosphere (Rudolph, 1982), has a characteristic structure. The lingua bears a pair of ventral sclerites that are connected to the median sitophore sclerite by five ligaments. The sitophore sclerite is situated on the ventral surface of the base of the cibarium. Opposite to it, on the dorsal surface of the cibarium wall, is a knoblike process that is believed to move against the sclerite in the manner of a mortar and pestle and facilitate the grinding up of food.

In winged forms the small prothorax is largely concealed by the pterothorax. The wings are membranous and have a prominent but reduced venation. The anterior pair is larger than the hind pair. At rest they are held rooflike over the body. The fore and hind wings are coupled both during flight and at rest. Varying degrees of brachyptery occur, even within the same species, and aptery is common, especially in females. The legs are usually slender and similar; in some species the hind coxae carry what is believed to be a stridulatory organ. The abdomen is l0-segmented and terminates in a dorsal epiproct and a pair of lateral paraprocts that may represent the 11th segment. The external genitalia of males are weakly developed, and their homologies are uncertain. A small ovipositor is usually present in females, though it is much reduced or absent in some forms. Cerci are never present.

Four Malpighian tubules originate at the posterior end of the midgut, which is long and convoluted. The nervous system is highly modified and comprises only five ganglionic centers: brain, subesophageal ganglion, prothoracic ganglion, a composite pterothoracic ganglion, and a composite abdominal ganglion. The tracheal system usually opens to the exterior by means of two pairs of thoracic and eight pairs of abdominal spiracles. Each ovary contains three to five polytrophic ovarioles. The lateral oviducts are short and open into a larger median duct. A spermatheca is present. The testes are roundish or three-lobed. The vasa deferentia lead into large seminal vesicles that appear to produce the material of the spermatophore.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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