246 microphagous. Some aquatic forms trap their food in specially developed mouth brushes.

Larvae of many species are of agricultural or medical importance. Usually four larval instars occur, but up to eight are found in some species, and in Muscomorpha the fourth is suppressed. Prior to pupation, larvae generally crawl to a drier location. Pupae may be naked, but those of many nematocerous and orthorrhaphous species are enclosed in a cocoon, and those of Muscomorpha are ensheathed by the puparium. The pharate adult swallows air to facilitate emergence from the pupal skin or puparium, the latter splitting lengthwise in obtect pupae; in coarctate forms, however, the adult protrudes the ptilinum to push off the anterior end of the puparium.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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