256 In older classifications a third series, Pupiparia, was often found. McAlpine (in McAlpine et al., 1981-1989), however, has presented strong reasons for considering this group as a monophyletic superfamily, Hippoboscoidea, within the calyptrate Schizophora. The majority of Schizophora (i.e., those that are winged as adults) can be arranged in two subdivisions, the Calyptratae, which contains flies that possess a calypter, or lobe, at the base of the fore wing that covers the halteres, and the Acalyptratae, whose members have no such lobe. Though this division is a natural one, that is, it represents a true evolutionary divergence, it should be recognized that (1) some groups have secondarily gained or lost the calypter, and (2) the adults of some parasitic families are wingless, though their affinities are clearly either calyptrate or acalyptrate.

Series Aschiza

Superfamily Platypezoidea

This superfamily has one large, cosmopolitan family, PHORIDAE (2700 species), and several small to very small ones, some of which are often included with the phorids. Although many phorids are free-living, fully winged flies found among low vegetation, on or near decaying organic matter, on fungi, in bird nests, etc., they seem to prefer to run rather than fly, a feature that foreshadows the brachypterous or apterous condition of the many species that live underground, as inquilines or parasites in ant and termite nests. Larvae are maggotlike, with diverse habits. Some are scavengers on fungi (and may become pests on mushroom farms), carrion, and human corpses; others are parasites of earthworms, other insects, spiders, and myriapods. PLATYPEZIDAE (250 species) form a worldwide group whose members prefer shaded woodland where they feed on nectar. Larvae are fungivorous.

Superfamily Syrphoidea

One small and one very large family make up the Syrphoidea. The PIPUNCULIDAE (big-headed flies) (400 species) are a cosmopolitan group of small humpbacked flies with large heads covered almost entirely by the compound eyes. Adults tend to be found hovering over flowers; the larvae are endoparasites ofhomopterans and, as such, are important natural control agents. The SYRPHIDAE (5000 species worldwide) (Figure 9.14) are the well-known hover flies. They form one of the largest and most easily recognized groups of

Diptera. They are generally brightly colored, often striped, and many mimic bees or wasps. In some species there are obvious reasons for the preciseness of this mimicry, for the hover fly lays its eggs in the nests of Hymenoptera and, because of its similarity, presumably avoids detection. For other species the reason is less obvious, and no relationship is apparent between the mimic and its model. In contrast to the rather uniform, nectar-feeding habits of adult hover flies, those of larvae are extremely varied, phytophagous, zoophagous, and saprophagous species being known.

Series Schizophora

Subdivision Acalyptratae

Superfamily Conopoidea

The superfamily Conopoidea, the most primitive of the Schizophora, contains the single, widespread family CONOPIDAE (800 species) whose members typically mimic wasps and bees. Adults are nectar feeders and are especially associated with flowers of Compositae, Labiatae, and Umbelliferae. Conopids are parasites of bees and wasps, cockroaches, and calyptrate Diptera, the female catching the host in flight and depositing an egg directly on its body.

Superfamily Tephritoidea

This group includes eight families in the scheme of McAlpine et al. (1981-1989) of which two are large and three are of medium size. The OTITIDAE (picture-winged flies) are predominantly a north-temperate group of some 400 species. Adults are common in dense vegetation; larvae are typically saprophagous, though a few are phytophagous, including pests of onions and sugar beet. PLATYSTOMATIDAE (1000 species) are worldwide but most common in Africa, Australia, and Asia. Both adults and larvae resemble members of the previous family in morphology and habits. The cosmopolitan PYRGOTIDAE (330 species) are typically nocturnal flies that parasitize scarabaeid beetles. Females land on the beetles in flight and oviposit on the thin abdominal tergites beneath the elytra. LONCHAEIDAE (500 species worldwide) generally occur in forests; larvae feed on rotting plant material, rarely flower heads and root crowns. The largest and best known family, with some 4000 species, is the TRYPETIDAE (TEPHRITIDAE), the fruit flies, a group that includes some major agricultural pests. Their larvae feed on a variety of plant materials. They may be leaf or stem miners, gall formers, flower-inhabiting species, or fruit and seed eaters. In the latter category are the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Figure 9.15), which attacks citrus and other fruits, and Rhagoletis pomonella, the apple maggot fly, whose larvae tunnel into apples, pears, etc.

Superfamily Nerioidea

Nerioidea (Micropezoidea) form a small group of three families, the largest of which is the MICROPEZIDAE (500 species), commonly called stilt flies because of their long legs. Members of this basically tropical family are found in wooded areas; their larvae are primarily saprophagous, though a few phytophagous species may become pests (e.g., of ginger and legumes).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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