244 Generally minute to small soft-bodied insects; head highly mobile with large compound eyes, antennae of varied size and structure, and suctorial mouthparts; prothorax and metathorax small and fused with large mesothorax, wings present only on mesothorax, halteres present on metathorax; legs with five-segmented tarsi; abdomen with varied number of visible segments, female genitalia simple in most species, male genitalia complex, cerci present.

Larvae eruciform and in most species apodous; head in many species reduced and retracted. Pupae adecticous and obtect or exarate, the latter enclosed in a puparium.

The more than 120,000 species of Diptera described to date represent perhaps two-thirds of the world total. The order has a truly worldwide distribution, representatives occurring even in the Antarctic. More than 19,500 species have been described from North America, almost 8000 from Australia, and close to 7000 from Britain. Some of the world's commonest insects and a large number of species of veterinary and medical importance belong to this order.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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