Chemoreception

Chemoreception, essentially taste (contact chemoreception) and smell (distance chemoreception), is an extremely significant process in the Insecta, as it initiates some of their most important behavior patterns, for example, feeding behavior, selection of an oviposition site, host or mate location, behavior integrating caste functions in social insects, and responses to commercial attractants and repellents.

Though taste and smell are distinguished traditionally, such a distinction has no firm morphological or physiological basis. The sensilla for the two senses are structurally very similar; indeed, in some species the same structure is used for both olfaction (smell) and gustation (taste). Further, stimulation of a sensillum by either tastes or odors probably entails comparable subcellular or molecular interactions. Any difference between smell and taste is, then, a matter of degree. Smell may be defined as chemostimulation by compounds in very low concentration but volatile at physiological temperatures, and taste as chemostimulation by higher concentrations of liquids that are not volatile at physiological temperatures.

In addition to taste and smell, insects have a third method of detecting chemical stimuli, the common chemical sense. This is the response of an insect (always an avoiding reaction) to high concentrations of noxious chemicals. It is not a response caused by stimulation of normal chemosensilla, because the response is not abolished after surgical removal of the structures bearing these sensilla. It would seem to be a non-specific response of other types of sensory neurons.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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