Collembola

Synonyms: Oligentoma, Oligoentomata Common name: springtails

Small to minute wingless hexapods; head pro- or hypognathous, antennae segmented, compound eyes absent, mouthparts entognathous; abdomen 6-segmented, typically with three medially situated pregenital appendages (collophore on segment 1, retinaculum on segment 2, furcula on segment 4), gonopore on 5th segment.

Collembola are abundant on every continent, including Antarctica. About 6500 species have been described, including more than 1600 from Australia, 300 from the United Kingdom, and about 840 from North America. Individual species may be quite cosmopolitan, sometimes as a result of human activity when they may become pests.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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