Daily Influences of Photoperiod

Various advantages may accrue to members of a species through the performance of particular activities at set times of the photoperiod. It may be advantageous for some insects to become active at dawn, dusk, or through the night when ambient temperatures are below the upper lethal limit, chances of predation are reduced, and the rate of water loss through the cuticle is lessened by the generally greater relative humidity that occurs at these times. For other insects, in which visual stimuli are important, activity during specific daylight hours may be advantageous; for example, food may be available for only a limited part of the day, or conversely, other, detrimental factors may restrict feeding to a specific period. For many species it is clearly beneficial for their members to show synchronous activity, as this will increase the chance of contact between sexes. "Activity" in this sense is not

* As Beck (1980) noted, some authors use this term to describe the light portion of a light-dark cycle (i.e., synonymously with day length).

restricted to locomotion, however. For example, in many species of moths, it is by and large 663

only the males that exhibit daily rhythms of locomotor activity. The females are sedentary,

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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