FIGURE 9.25. (A) A suggested phylogeny of Lepidoptera. (B) Superfamily relationships within the Ditrysia.

Suborder Zeugloptera

The very small, diurnal moths of the suborder Zeugloptera have the following features: functional dentate mandibles, maxilla with lacinia and free galeae, hypopharynx modified for grinding pollen grains; homoneurous wing venation, jugate wing coupling; larvae without a spinneret; and pupae decticous and exarate.

The suborder contains a single superfamily, Micropterigoidea, and one widely distributed family (MICROPTERIGIDAE) of about 100 species. Adults are metallic-colored moths with a body length of a few millimeters. They feed on pollen and fern spores. Larvae of some species feed on liverworts; others, found in rotting wood and soil, appear to be detritus feeders.

Suborder Aglossata

This suborder was erected to include two species of Agathiphaga (AGATHIPHAGI-DAE, Agathiphagoidea) from northeastern Australia and the southwestern Pacific. These nocturnal moths, which resemble caddisflies, have large mandibles, though it is not known whether they feed. Their larvae are miners in the seeds of kauri pines (Agathis).

Suborder Heterobathmiina

Discovered only in the late 1970s, the handful of Heterobathmia species that comprise this suborder were originally included as a subfamily of Micropterigidae. Subsequent discovery of the larval stages led to the erection of a new family (HETEROBATHMIIDAE), superfamily (Heterobathmioidea), and suborder for these small, diurnal moths from temperate South America. The adults eat pollen; their larvae are leaf miners in Nothofagus (southern beech).

Suborder Glossata

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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