At the time of ecdysis, the old cuticle comprises only the original exocuticle and epicuticle. In many insects it is separated from the new cuticle by an air space and a thin ecdysial (apolysial) membrane that is formed from undigested inner layers of the endocuticle. These layers are not digested because they became tanned along with the new cuticulin envelope. Shortly before molting an insect begins to swallow air (or water, if aquatic), thereby increasing the hemolymph pressure by as much as 12 kPa. Hemolymph is then localized in the head and thorax following contraction of intersegmental abdominal muscles. In many insects these muscles become functional only at the time of ecdysis and histolyze after each molt. The local increase in pressure in the anterior part of the body causes the old cuticle to split along a weak ecdysial line where the exocuticle is thin or absent. An insect continues to swallow air or water after the molt in order to stretch the new cuticle prior to tanning.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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