Em

New Zealand

a After Roberts et al., in Pimentel (1991, Vol. 2).

bBV, non-occluded baculovirus;CPV, cypovirus;GV, granulovirus;NPV, nucleopolyhedrovirus. c A, augmentation;EM, environmental manipulation;IA, inoculative augmentation;IE, introduction-establishment.

dAutographa californica NPV.

Type of Control

Insect host virusb Host plant strategyc Location a After Roberts et al., in Pimentel (1991, Vol. 2).

bBV, non-occluded baculovirus;CPV, cypovirus;GV, granulovirus;NPV, nucleopolyhedrovirus. c A, augmentation;EM, environmental manipulation;IA, inoculative augmentation;IE, introduction-establishment.

dAutographa californica NPV.

chemical insecticides. Advantages of fungi include their specificity and, for most species, their facultatively parasitic nature, allowing them to be mass-produced by fermentation. Because fungi attack their host by cuticular penetration (rather than having to be ingested), they may become especially useful as control agents for plant-sucking insects. Eight species of fungi were registered worldwide as of 1998 (Table 24.9), and several more are under intensive study. It would appear that, with improvements in mass-production, persistence, virulence, and formulation (leading to improved germination), fungi will have a major role to play in specific integrated pest management programs (Zimmerman, 1986; Ferron et al., 1991; Roberts et al., in Pimentel, 1991, Vol. 2; Butt et al., 2001; Khetan, 2001; Khachatourians et al., in Koul and Dhaliwal, 2002; Alves et al., 2003).

Of the various groups of microorganisms with potential for pest control, the protozoa are the least studied despite the knowledge that many species (especially Microsporidia) cause regular natural epizootics among pest insects (Table 24.10) (Kellen, 1974). A major

TABLE 24.9. Some Fungi Used or with Good Potential as Microbial Control Agents for

Insects0

Fungus

Target insects

Status*

Aschersonia aleyrodis Beauveria bassiana

Beauveria brongniarti Conidiobolus obscurus C. thromboides Culicinomyces clavisporus Entomophaga grylli Lagenidium giganteum Metarhizium anisopliae

Metarhizium flavoride Nomuraea rileyi Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Verticillium lecanii

Whitefly Pine caterpillar Potato beetle Corn borers Codling moth

Grasshoppers, whitefly, thrips, mealybugs, aphids

White grubs, cockchafers

Aphids

Aphids

Mosquitoes

Grasshoppers

Mosquitoes

Spittle bugs

Cockroaches, termites

Grasshoppers, locusts

Velvetbean caterpillar

Greenhouse pests, diamondback moth

Aphids, whitefly

Greenhouse pests

A—Russia

A—Europe

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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