Embryonic Development

Within species-specific limits the rate of embryonic development is inversely related 621

to temperature. Outside these limits, an embryo may survive but not develop; that is, it is quiescent. Survival of an embryo at extreme temperatures may be achieved through diapause. Eggs of many species must take up water from the environment before embryonic development can begin. Ecdysone and juvenile hormone are involved in the regulation of embryogenesis though their precise roles remain unknown. In respect of embryonic cuticle formation they appear to work as they do in postembryonic development.

At hatching, hemolymph is forced into the head and thorax as a result of abdominal muscle contraction. As the anterior end of the embryo increases in volume, the chorion is split. Hatching may be facilitated by lines of weakness in the chorion, by egg bursters or eversible bladders on the head or thorax, or by secretion of pleuropodial chitinase that dissolves the serosal cuticle.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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