Endopterygote Orders

Series Elateriformia

Crowson (1960) suggested that the Elateriformia and Scarabaeiformia may have had a common ancestor which perhaps resembled the recent Dascillidae in general form but which was semiaquatic in habit and fed on algae. Crowson pointed out that in contrast to the Adephaga, Staphyliniformia, and Cucujiformia, in which the larval life is short and adult life long, in the Elateriformia larvae are long-lived and adults short-lived, frequently not taking any protein food. Thus, the adaptations of larvae are usually more important than those of adults. Within the series six superfamilies are recognized.

Superfamily Byrrhoidea

The 300 species of Byrrhoidea are placed in the family BYRRHIDAE (pill beetles). The family is largely restricted to temperate regions, where both the adults and larvae typically feed on mosses and liverworts. Some species camouflage themselves by mimicking mammal droppings.

Superfamily Dryopoidea

Most of the slightly more than 2100 species of Dryopoidea are subaquatic or aquatic. Adults generally live in mud or on vegetation at the margin of ponds or streams though ELMIDAE are truly aquatic, living in running water and obtaining oxygen by means of a plastron or air bubble (see Chapter 15, Section 4.2). Larvae are also aquatic and show a number of adaptations for this mode of life. Of the nine families that Crowson (1981) included in the group, the Elmidae is the largest with 700 species and occurs worldwide. PTILODACTYLIDAE (300 species) are primarily tropical; adults are found on foliage, larvae in leaf litter, rotten wood, and debris at the edges of streams. HETEROCERIDAE (300 species) form a worldwide group that live in tunnels constructed in mud or sand at the edge of streams or ponds. They feed on algae, diatoms, etc.

Superfamily Buprestoidea

The 15,000 species of Buprestoidea are placed in a single family BUPRESTIDAE (Figure 10.12). They are commonly known as "jewel beetles" because of their usually brilliant coloration. The family is particularly common in forests where the adults are found on flowers, while the larvae, which are commonly called flat-headed borers because of their

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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