Exopterygote Metamorphosis

In most exopterygotes the larval and adult forms of a species occupy the same habitat, eat the same kinds of food (though specific preferences may change with age), and are subject to the same environmental conditions. Accordingly, most organ systems of a juvenile exopterygote are smaller and/or less well-developed versions of those found in an adult and simply grow progressively during larval life to accommodate changing needs. Even larval Odonata and Ephemeroptera that are aquatic and possess transient adaptive features such as gills or caudal lamellae broadly resemble the adult stage. The system that undergoes the most obvious change at the final molt is the flight mechanism. In the last larval instar wings develop within the wing buds as much folded sheets of integument, and, concurrently, the articulating sclerites differentiate. Direct flight muscle rudiments are present in larval instars and are attached to the integument at points corresponding to the future locations of the sclerites. Some of these (bifunctional muscles) may be important in leg movements during larval life (Chapter 14, Section 3.3.1). Like the direct flight muscles, the indirect flight muscles grow progressively through larval life but remain unstriated and non-functional until the adult stage.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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