External Structure

FIGURE 3.25. Leg modifications in the worker honey bee. (A) Foreleg showing the cleaning notch, (B) outer surface of hindleg showing the pollen basket, and (C) inner surface of hind tarsus and tip of hind tibia showing rake and pollen press. [After R. E. Snodgrass, 1925. Anatomy and Physiology of the Honey bee, McGraw-Hill Book Company.]

of the foreleg through which the antenna can be drawn and cleaned. The hindlegs of the bee are modified for pollen collection (Figure 3.25B). Rows of hairs, the comb, on the inner side of the first tarsomere scrape pollen off the abdomen. The rake, a fringe of hairs at the distal end of the tibia, then collects the pollen from the comb on the opposite leg and transfers it to the pollen press. When the press is closed, the pollen is pushed up into the pollen basket, where it is stored until the bee returns to its nest.

The majority of adult Pterygota have one or two pairs of functional wings. The complete absence of wings is a secondary condition, associated with the habits of the group concerned, for example, soil-dwelling or endoparasitism. The wings may be modified for a variety of purposes other than flight.

Development and General Structure. Regardless of its evolutionary origin (Chapter 2, Section 3.1) a wing contains the usual integumental elements (cuticle, epidermis, and

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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