External Structure

FIGURE 3.19. Diagrammatic cross-sections of the thorax to show the endoskeleton. (A) Normal condition; and (B) condition when furca present. [From R. E. Snodgrass, Principles of Insect Morphology. Copyright 1935 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. Used with permission of McGraw-Hill Book Company.]

FIGURE 3.20. Ventral view of a generalized thoracic sternum. [From R. E. Snodgrass, Principles of Insect Morphology. Copyright 1935 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. Used with permission of McGraw-Hill Book Company.]

of the neck region. The pronotum especially is different, lacking the antecostal region and phragma through neck membranization. In some groups (e.g., Orthoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera) the pronotum is greatly enlarged; in others it is reduced to a narrow band between the head and mesothorax. In those orders whose members have a single pair of functional wings, the tergal plates of the segment from which the wings are absent are usually reduced in size.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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