External Structure

FIGURE 3.14. Head and mouthparts of the house fly. (A) Lateral view of the head with the proboscis extended; and (B) anterodistal view of the proboscis. [From R. E. Snodgrass, Principles of Insect Morphology. Copyright 1935 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. Used with permission of McGraw-Hill Book Company.]

FIGURE 3.15. Mouthparts of the tsetse fly. (A) Cross-section; and (B) lateral view of the proboscis. [From R. E. Snodgrass, Principles of Insect Morphology. Copyright 1935 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. Used with permission of McGraw-Hill Book Company.]

taken as an example (Figure 3.16). The labrum is dagger-shaped but flexible and blunt at the tip. On its inner side is a groove closed posteriorly by the mandibles to form the food canal. The mandibles are long and sharply pointed. The maxillae retain most of the components of the typical biting form (except the laciniae) but the galeae are long bladelike structures. The hypopharynx is a styletlike structure and contains the salivary duct. The labium is a large, thick appendage with a deep anterior groove into which the other mouthparts normally fit. Distally it bears two large labellar lobes. Blood flows along the pseudotracheae to the tip of the food canal.

Hemiptera. The major contributor to the hemipteran proboscis (Figure 3.17) is the labium, a flexible segmented structure with a deep groove on its anterior surface. Within this groove are found the piercing organs, the mandibular and maxillary bristles. The two

FIGURE 3.16. Head and mouthparts of the horse fly. (A) Anterior view of the head; and (B-E) lateral views of the separated mouthparts. [From R. E. Snodgrass, Principles of Insect Morphology. Copyright 1935 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. Used with permission of McGraw-Hill Book Company.]
FIGURE 3.17. Head and mouthparts of Hemiptera. (A) Head with the mouthparts separated; and (B) cross-section of the proboscis. [FromR. E. Snodgrass, Principles of Insect Morphology. Copyright 1935 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. Used with permission of McGraw-Hill Book Company.]

maxillary bristles are interlocked within the labial groove and form the food and salivary canals. Because of the great enlargement of the clypeal region of the head associated with the opisthognathous condition, the cibarial sucking pump is entirely within the head.

4. The Neck and Thorax

The thorax is the locomotory center of the insect. Typically each of its three segments (pro-, meso-, and metathorax) bears a pair of legs, and in the adult stage of the Pterygota the meso- and metathoracic segments each have a pair of wings. Between the head and thorax 73

is the membranous neck (cervix).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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