Food and Trophic Relationships

Insects have evolved diverse feeding habits that allow them to exploit virtually every naturally occurring organic substance. Among their adaptations are specialized ingestive and digestive systems, the ability to detoxify or physically avoid toxins produced by the host, mutualistic relationships between the insect and microorganisms, and life-history strategies that result in temporal avoidance of resource-poor situations (including those resulting from interspecific competition) or times when the host's toxins are abundant. Thus, insects participate in an array of trophic interactions as herbivores, predators, parasites, parasitoids, detritivores, and prey in both terrestrial andfreshwater ecosystems (Figures 23.1 and 23.2). Food may be an important limiter of insect population growth; it may also affect the distribution and the dispersal of species over time (Price, 1997).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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