Food Selection and Feeding

Distinct visual, chemical, and mechanical cues act at each step of the food location and ingestion process. These steps include attraction to food, arrest of movement, tasting, biting, further tasting as ingestion begins, continued ingestion, and termination of feeding. The sensitivity of the insect to these cues varies with its physiological state. For example, a starved insect may become highly sensitive to odors or tastes associated with its normal food, and in extreme cases may become quite indiscriminate in terms of what it ingests. On the other hand, a female whose abdomen is full of eggs is normally "uninterested" in feeding.

In some plant-feeding (phytophagous) species, visual stimuli such as particular patterns (especially stripes) or colors may serve to initially attract an insect to a potential food source. Usually, however, the initial orientation, where this occurs, is dependent on olfactory stimuli. In many larval forms there appear to be no specific orienting stimuli because, under normal circumstances, larvae remain on the food plant selected by the mother prior

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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