Food Uptake And Utilization

FIGURE 16.2. Transverse sections through (A) crop and (B) proventriculus of a locust. [After C. Hodge, 1939, The anatomy and histology of the alimentary tract of Locusta migratoria L. (Orthoptera: Acrididae), J. Morphol. 64:375-399. By permission of Wistar Press.]

midgut within the peritrophic matrix. It also appears to assist in molding the peritrophic matrix into the correct shape in some insects.

3.3. Midgut

The midgut (= ventriculus = mesenteron) is of endodermal origin and, therefore, has no cuticular lining. In most insects, however, it is lined by a thin peritrophic matrix (PM) composed of proteins bound to a meshwork of chitin fibrils (Figure 16.4). Some PM proteins, the peritrophins, are heavily glycosylated like mucus in the intestine of vertebrates. The functions of the PM are to prevent mechanical damage to the midgut epithelium, to prevent entry of microorganisms into the body cavity, to bind potential toxins and other damaging chemicals, and to compartmentalize the midgut lumen, that is, to divide it into an endoperitrophic space (within the matrix) and an ectoperitrophic space (adjacent to the

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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