Gas Exchange

oxygen is maintained in tracheoles to supply tissue requirements and, at the same time, that 475

carbon dioxide produced in metabolism is removed quickly, preventing its buildup to toxic levels. In small insects and inactive stages of larger insects, diffusion of gases between the spiracle and tracheoles is sufficiently rapid that these requirements are met. However, if the spiracles are kept permanently open, the amount of water lost via the tracheal system may become important. Thus, many insects utilize discontinuous gas exchange as a means of reducing this loss. The needs of large, active insects can be satisfied only by shortening the distance over which diffusion must occur. This is achieved by active ventilation movements.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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