Gas Exchange

FIGURE 15.6. Discontinuous release of carbon dioxide in pupa of Hyalophora cecropia in relation to spiracular valve opening and closing. [After R. I. Levy and H. A. Schneiderman, 1966, Discontinuous respiration in insects. IV, J. Insect Physiol. 12:465-492. By permission of Pergamon Press Ltd.]

environments (Lighton 1996, 1998). Certainly, DGC is common in some subterranean groups, notably ants and beetles that burrow in soil, dung or wood. However, there are exceptions to this generalization, perhaps the major one being termites (Shelton and Appel, 2000, 2001). Further, some species that normally use DGC may abandon it under hypoxic conditions (Chown and Holter, 2000; Chown, 2002).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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