Synonyms: Notoptera, Grylloblattaria, Grylloblattida Common names: rock crawlers, ice crawlers

Elongate insects; head prognathous, mouthparts mandibulate, compound eyes reduced or absent, ocelli absent, antennae long and filiform; thoracic segments similar and well distinguished, legs virtually identical with large coxae and five-segmented tarsi, wings and auditory organs absent; abdomen with long, segmented cerci, females with well-developed ovipositor, males with articulated coxites on ninth sternum and asymmetrical genitalia.

Walker (1914) described the first living representative of the order. Now totalling 26 species from western North America, eastern Siberia, Japan, Korea, and northeast China, living grylloblattids are the remnants of an abundant and diverse group of insects from the Permian.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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