Gut Movements

Though the alimentary canal is innervated, neural control is principally associated with the opening/closing of valves that occur within the canal (see below). The rhythmic peristaltic muscle contractions that move food posteriorly through the gut are myogenic; that is, they originate within the muscles themselves rather than occurring as a result of nervous stimuli. Myogenic centers have been located in the esophagus, crop, and proventriculus, in Galleria, for example. In insects that form a Type II PM, backward movement of food is aided by growth of the membrane. Antiperistaltic movements also occur in some species and serve to move digestive fluid forward from the midgut into the crop.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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