Hemiptera

Synonym: Rhynchota Common name: true bugs

Minute to large insects, head opisthognathous (homopterans) or prognathous (heteropterans), compound eyes usually well developed but rarely absent, two or three ocelli usually present, antennae with few segments, mouthparts suctorial with mandibles and maxillae in form of stylets enclosed within a labial sheath; two pairs of wings usually present with fore wings of harder consistency than hind pair; abdomen with 9-11 segments, external genitalia varied in both sexes, cerci absent.

This group is the largest and most heterogeneous order of exopterygotes, containing some 80,000 described species from all regions of the world, About 11,000 species have been described from North America, 5600 from Australia, and 1600 from Britain. The order traditionally has been divided into the Homoptera (Sternorrhyncha + Auchenorrhyn-cha) and Heteroptera (and some authors have raised these to the rank of order). However, there is a growing body of evidence, both morphological and molecular, to indicate that the Homoptera is a paraphyletic group, and that the Auchenorrhyncha is the sister group of the Heteroptera (see Phylogeny and Classification). Thus, in the description below the term homopteran is used to describe a level of organization, not a taxonomic rank.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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