Hymenoptera

Synonym: Vespida Common names: bees, wasps, ants, sawflies

Minute to medium-sized insects; head usually with well-developed compound eyes, mandibulate mouthparts (though usually adapted for sucking also); two pairs of transparent wings present in most species, fore and hind wings coupled, venation reduced; abdomen in most species markedly constricted between segments 1 and 2, with former intimately fused with metathorax; females with an ovipositor which is modified in some species for purposes in addition to egg laying. Larvae caterpillarlike (Symphyta) or maggotlike (Apocrita). Pupae adecticous andin most species exarate, often in a cocoon.

The order Hymenoptera includes some 130,000 described species, of which about 18,000 occur in North America, 15,000 in Australia, and 6500 in the United Kingdom. In the evolution of the order, which contains some of the most advanced and highly specialized insects, emphasis has been laid not so much on structural and physiological modifications as has occurred in other orders, but on the development of complex behavior patterns. These 331

are particularly related to provision of food for the progeny and have led ultimately to the f b j J THEREMAINING

evolution of sociality in several groups. ENDOPTERYGOTE

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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