Immunity in the present discussion may be defined as the ability of an insect to resist the pathogenic effects of microorganisms that have gained entry into the body cavity. As in vertebrates, two forms of immunity may be distinguished, innate (natural) and acquired (induced) (Gillespie, etal., 1997; Vilmos and Kurucz, 1998; Vass and Nappi, 2001; Lavine and Strand, 2002).

Innate immunity refers to resistance produced by factors already present in an organism, that is, prior to any stimulation resulting from appearance of a pathogen. Innate immunity in insects appears to be principally a cellular phenomenon, comprising phagocytosis, nodule formation, and encapsulation on the part of the hemocytes. However, the plasma may

* Some fungi enter the host via the integument (Chapter 23, Section 4.2.4).

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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