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The Remaining Endopterygote Orders

1. Introduction 239

2. Mecoptera 239

3. Diptera 243

4. Siphonaptera 264

5. Trichoptera 268

6. Lepidoptera 276

1. Introduction 297

2. Megaloptera 297

3. Raphidioptera 299

4. Neuroptera 301

5. Coleoptera 305

6. Strepsiptera 326

7. Hymenoptera 330

II. Anatomy and Physiology

11 1. Introduction 355

2. Structure 355

The 3. Cuticle Formation 360

3.1. Preecdysis 360

Integument 3.2. Ecdysis 363

3.3. Postecdysis 363

viii 3.4. Coordination of Events 365

4. Functions of the Integument 366

Contents TT

4.1. Strength and Hardness 366

4.2. Permeability 367

4.3. Color 369

4.4. Other Functions 370

5. Summary 370

6. Literature 371

12 1. Introduction 373

2. Mechanoreception 374

Sensory 2.1. Sensory Hairs 374

2.2. Proprioceptors 375

Systems 2.3. Signal Detection 378

3. Sound Reception 379

3.1. Johnston's Organ 380

3.2. Tympanal Organs 380

3.3. Subgenual Organs 383

4. Chemoreception 384

4.1. Location and Structure of Sensilla 384

4.2. Physiology of Chemoreception 386

5. Humidity Perception 387

6. Temperature Perception 388

7. Photoreception 389

7.1. Compound Eyes 389

7.1.1. Form and Movement Perception 392

7.1.2. Distance Perception 395

7.1.3. Spectral Sensitivity and Color Vision 396

7.1.4. Sensitivity to Polarized Light 397

7.2. Simple Eyes 398

8. Summary 400

9. Literature 401

13 1. Introduction 405

2. Nervous System 405

Nervous and 2.1. Central Nervous System 408

. 2.2. Visceral Nervous System 411

Chemical 2.3. Physiology of Neural Integration 411

Integration 2.4. Learning and Memory 415

3. Endocrine System 417

3.1. Neurosecretory Cells and Corpora Cardiaca 417

3.2. Corpora Allata 419

3.3. Molt Glands 420

3.4. Other Endocrine Structures 420

4. Insect Semiochemicals 421

4.1. Pheromones 422

4.1.1. Sex Pheromones 422 ix

4.1.2. Caste-Regulating Pheromones 425

4.1.3. Aggregation Pheromones 425

4.1.4. Alarm Pheromones 426

4.1.5. Trail-Marking Pheromones 427

4.1.6. Spacing (Epideictic) Pheromones 428

4.2. Kairomones 429

4.3. Allomones 429

5. Environmental, Neural, and Endocrine Interaction... 430

6. Summary 431

7. Literature 432

14 1. Introduction 437

2. Muscles 437

Muscles and Structure 438

2.2. Physiology 441

Locomotion 3. Locomotion 443

3.1. Movement on or Through a Substrate 443

3.1.1. Walking 443

3.1.2. Jumping 447

3.1.3. Crawling and Burrowing 448

3.2. Movement on or Through Water 449

3.2.1. Surface Running 449

3.2.2. Swimming by Means of Legs 450

3.2.3. Swimming by Other Means 451

3.3. Flight 452

3.3.1. Structural Basis 452

3.3.2. Aerodynamic Considerations 453

3.3.3. Mechanics of Wing Movements 458

3.3.4. Control of Wing Movements 460

3.3.5. Flight Metabolism 462

3.4. Orientation 464

4. Summary 465

5. Literature 466

15 1. Introduction 469

2. Organization and Structure of the Tracheal System... 470

Gas 2.1. Tracheae and Tracheoles 470

Exchange 2.2. Spiracles 473

Exchange 3. Movement of Gases within the Tracheal System 474

3.1. Diffusion 475

3.2. Discontinuous Gas Exchange 476

3.3. Active Ventilation 477

4. Gas Exchange in Aquatic Insects 479

4.1. Closed Tracheal Systems 479

4.2. Open Tracheal Systems 481

Contents

Food Uptake and Utilization

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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