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Superfamily Piesmatoidea chapter 8 This widespread group contains only about 20 species, all in the family PIESMATI-

DAE. Though these phytophagous bugs superficially resemble Tingoidea, morphological studies confirm that they are closely related to the Lygaeoidea (in which they are sometimes included).

Superfamily Lygaeoidea

About 80% of the more than 3600 species of Lygaeoidea belong to the family LY-GAEIDAE, a widely distributed group whose members are usually found on the ground, among vegetation, or under stones or low plants, where they feed usually on mature seeds that have fallen to the ground. Some species live off the ground, feeding on stems or immature seeds of a variety of plants, especially grasses. A few others are predaceous. Several species are pests, the best-known example being Blissus leucopterus, the chinch bug (Figure 8.22A), which attacks maturing cereal crops in the United States. A small but economically important family is the PYRRHOCORIDAE (300 species), whose members are widely distributed, commonly black and red bugs. Several species of Dysdercus (Figure 8.22B) are major pests of cotton and other Malvaceae on whose seeds (bolls) they feed. During this activity the bolls become contaminated with a fungus, which later stains the cotton fibers, hence the common name of cotton stainers for these insects. The BERYTIDAE (stilt bugs) (Figure 8.22C) are secretive, slow-moving bugs found chiefly on low-growing plants. The family is small (160 species) but widely distributed. Its members have narrow, elongate bodies and long slender legs and antennae. Though principally phytophagous, some species are facultative predators.

Superfamily Coreoidea

The Coreoidea are closely related to the Lygaeoidea, and the demarcating line between the two groups is often difficult to define. There is also disagreement over the higher classification of the superfamily, some authorities (e.g., Carver etal., 1991) recognizing up to five families, others placing all species in the single family COREIDAE. The more than 2000 species of coreids are generally dark-colored bugs, most common in Asia, Africa, and South America. All are phytophagous, and some are pests, for example, the squash bug, Anasa tristis (Figure 8.23), on Cucurbitaceae in North America. Many species rival pentatomids in their abilities to produce foul smells. ALYDIDAE (250 species worldwide) feed on the vegetative parts of plants and on both ripe and unripe seeds. Some species are pests of rice and, occasionally, legumes.

Superfamily Pentatomoidea

Included among the 7000 species of Pentatomoidea are the familiar shield and stink bugs. The group is subdivided into as many as 15 families of which by far the largest, with more than 5000 species, is the PENTATOMIDAE. Most pentatomids are phytophagous, but a few are predaceous on other insects, especially caterpillars. They are typically brightly colored or conspicuously marked insects, capable of emitting a foul fluid from thoracic repugnatorial glands. A few species are economically important, for example, Murgantia histrionica, the harlequin cabbage bug (Figure 8.24) found on cabbage and other Cruciferae.

FIGURE 8.22. Lygaeoidea. (A) The chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus (Lygaeidae); (B) a cotton stainer, Dysdercus suturellus (Pyrrhocoridae); and (C) a stilt bug, Jalysus wickhami (Berytidae). [A, from P.-P. Grasse (ed.), 1951, Traite de Zoologie, Vol. X. By permission of Masson, Paris. B, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. C, from R. C. Froeschner, 1942, Contributions to a synopsis of the Hemiptera of Missouri, Am. Midl. Nat. 27(3):591-609. By permission of the American Midland Naturalist.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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