Both adult andjuvenile Embioptera can produce silken tunnels that are just wide enough to permit the animals to move forward or backward along them. Generally, many embiids are found associated together in a "nest" of interconnected tubes. It must be emphasized, however, that this gregarious behavior is in no way social; that is, there is no caste system or division of labor. In humid regions an entire nest may be exposed, but in drier parts of the world it is usually partially subterranean as a protection against desiccation and fire. Nests are constructed in the immediate vicinity of a food source, and tunnels often extend directly into this. Embiids are phytophagous, with dead grass and leaves, lichens, moss, and bark constituting the main food. Early workers believed that males might be carnivorous because of the rather distinct mandibles. It is now known, however, that the structure of the latter is correlated with their use in grasping the female's head during copulation, and, in many species, mature males do not feed.

A typical nest contains a few mature females and their developing young. Mature males are generally short-lived and, in some species, are eaten by the female after mating. Parthenogenesis probably occurs in some species. Eggs are laid in a tunnel and guarded by the female. Parental care is extended to the young larvae, but these soon produce their own tunnels in which to develop. New colonies are formed in the vicinity of the old ones, and it is during this short migration to new sites that embiids are especially vulnerable. The absence of wings in females has more or less restricted the distribution of the Embioptera to the major land masses, though some species, perhaps transported by commerce, are found on remote Pacific islands.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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