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Adult Male. Males (Figure 10.21A) are small (1.5-4.0 mm in length) and usually the remaining black or brownish. The head is very distinct with its flabellate antennae and protruding, berrylike compound eyes. The mouthparts are mandibulate but invariably reduced. The prothorax and mesothorax are small, the metathorax is very large and usually accounts for about half the body length. The fore wings are reduced and without veins. They may function like the halteres of Diptera. The hind wings are large but have few veins. The legs are weak and the first two pairs lack a trochanter. They are used for holding onto the female during copulation. The abdomen is 10-segmented, has a usually hooked aedeagus, but lacks cerci.

Adult Female. In only one family, the Mengenillidae, are females free-living and larviform; all other female Strepsiptera are parasitoid. Only the greatly reduced head and thorax protrude from the host's body, the abdomen remaining enclosed within the last larval cuticle, the puparium, which is itself in the abdomen of the host (Figure 10.21B). Between the puparium and the true ventral surface of the female lies a flattened cavity, the brood passage. It is along this passage that insemination occurs and the first-instar larvae emerge. Secondary genital openings (median invaginations of the ventral integument) occur on abdominal segments 2-5.

In both sexes the gut is reduced and ends blindly behind the midgut; two or three Malpighian tubules occur. The tracheal system of Mengenillidae includes two thoracic

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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