Cockroaches are typically flattened, oval-shaped insects whose head is covered by the large disclike pronotum. In contrast, mantids are elongate and easily recognized by their raptorial forelegs, prominent, movable head, and usually elongate pronotum. Almost all mantids are procryptically colored, though it is not known whether such camouflage is more important in concealing them from prey or from would-be predators. Some species show color polymorphism, the change from one color to another occurring either in individual insects over a few days or on a population-wide basis from season to season.

The head is hypognathous. Compound eyes are well developed in most forms but may be reduced or absent in cockroaches that live in caves, ants' nests, etc. Three ocelli are present in mantids, but in most cockroaches the ocelli have degenerated, being represented by a pair of transparent areas on the cuticle, the fenestrae. The antennae, which in some species are very long, are filiform and multisegmented. Well-developed mandibulate mouthparts are present. The legs are essentially similar in cockroaches, but in most mantids the forelegs are greatly enlarged and bear spines for catching prey. In both cockroaches and mantids wings may be fully developed, shortened, or absent. In some cockroach species both fully winged and short-winged forms occur. In mantids males are typically fully winged whereas females are frequently brachypterous or apterous. When present, the fore wings are moderately sclerotized and form tegmina. The hind wings have large anal areas. The venation is primitive, with the longitudinal veins much branched and large numbers of crossveins present. Ten obvious segments are present in the abdomen, with the 11th represented in both sexes by the paraprocts and short, multisegmented cerci. In males the ninth sternum forms the subgenital plate, which usually bears a pair of styli. The genitalia, which are partially hidden by the subgenital and supra-anal (10th tergal) plates, are membranous and asymmetrical. In females the subgenital plate is formed from the seventh sternum, which envelops the small ovipositor. Sterna 8-10 are reduced and internal.

The gut, which is long and coiled in cockroaches, short and straight in mantids, contains a large crop, well-developed gizzard, and a short midgut attached to which are eight ceca. Up to 100 or more Malpighian tubules originate at the anterior end of the hindgut. The nervous system is generalized, and three thoracic and six or seven abdominal ganglia are usually present. In some cockroaches only four or five abdominal ganglia can be seen, as a result of coalescence of the anterior ones with the metathoracic ganglion. The testes comprise four or more follicles enclosed in a peritoneal sheath. The vasa deferentia enter the ejaculatory duct, at the anterior end of which are the seminal vesicles and various accessory glands. A large conglobate gland of uncertain function opens separately to the exterior in male cockroaches. There are several panoistic ovarioles in each ovary. The lateral oviducts lead to the common oviduct, which opens into a large genital chamber. The spermatheca also enters this chamber on its dorsal side. Accessory glands, whose secretions form the ootheca, also open into the genital chamber. Subcutaneous glands, whose secretions may be either repugnatory or important in courtship (males only), occur in cockroaches.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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