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Suborder Nannomecoptera chapter 9 This suborder contains the single, small, primitive Southern Hemisphere family

NANNOCHORISTIDAE. The eight species in this group differ from other mecopterans in lacking a pump for transferring sperm from male to female, and in details of their external genitalia, wing venation, and mandibular structure. Adults are small and live in the vicinity of streams or lakes. Their larvae are aquatic and carnivorous, feeding on larval Diptera, especially chironomids.

Suborder Pistillifera

The suborder Pistillifera (literally "piston-bearers" in reference to the sperm pump of males) is divided by Willmann (1987) into two infraorders, Raptipedia and Opisthogonopora. The Raptipedia includes the large (145 species) and cosmopolitan family BITTACIDAE (Figure 9.2C) whose members have raptorial tarsi with which they grasp their prey, often hanging under vegetation by their forelegs. Among the Opisthogono-pora, the BOREIDAE (Figure 9.2A) constitute the most distinct family; indeed, Hinton (1958) placed this holarctic group of about 25 species in a separate order, Neomecoptera.

FIGURE 9.2. Mecoptera. (A) Boreus brumalis (Boreidae); (B) Panorpa helena (Panorpidae); and (C) Bittacus pilicornis (Bittacidae). [A, B, from D. J. Borror, D. M. Delong, and C.A. Triplehorn, 1976, An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed. By permission of Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning. C, from D. W. Webb, N. D. Penny, and J. C. Marlin, 1975. The Mecoptera, or scorpionflies, of Illinois. Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 31:251-316. By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

FIGURE 9.2. Mecoptera. (A) Boreus brumalis (Boreidae); (B) Panorpa helena (Panorpidae); and (C) Bittacus pilicornis (Bittacidae). [A, B, from D. J. Borror, D. M. Delong, and C.A. Triplehorn, 1976, An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed. By permission of Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning. C, from D. W. Webb, N. D. Penny, and J. C. Marlin, 1975. The Mecoptera, or scorpionflies, of Illinois. Bull. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. 31:251-316. By permission of the Illinois Natural History Survey.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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