Info

This extremely small monofamilial (SCHRECKENSTEINIIDAE) group includes five the panorpoid species of Schreckensteinia, found in North America (one also in Europe). Larvae feed on ORDERs leaves and S. festaliella is occasionally a minor blackberry pest.

Superfamily Copromorphoidea

Two small families make up this group, which was previously included in the Alu-citoidea. The COPROMORPHIDAE (60 species) is a primarily Asian-Australian family, with a few species in Europe and North America. CARPOSINIDAE (200 species) is a more widely distributed group, though with a strong Asian and Australian component. Larvae of both families mine bark, fruit, stems, and twigs, occasionally becoming minor pests.

Superfamily Alucitoidea

This small group (130 species) is mostly placed in the family ALUCITIDAE, the many-plume moths, so-called because their wings are cleft into six or more plumelike divisions. Larvae of this widespread family are miners of buds, flowers, and shoots.

Superfamily Epermenioidea

The approximately 70 species of epermenioids are included in the widespread family EPERMENIIDAE, Like those of the previous two superfamilies, with which they had previously been included, the larvae of these very small moths, especially the early instars, are miners in leaves, seeds, fruits, and flowers, sometimes becoming external web builders when older.

Superfamily Pterophoroidea

The single family PTEROPHORIDAE that constitutes the Pterophoroidea includes about 500 species commonly known as plume moths because their wings are usually split into two or three, rarely four, plumes. The larvae are usually leaf miners when young and later become surface feeders or stem borers on low-growing, broad-leaved shrubs. Some are pests of artichokes and grape vines in North America.

Superfamily Hyblaeoidea

The 20 or so species in this group are, with one tropical American exception, from the Old World tropics. They fall into the single family HYBLAEIDAE, a group previously associated with Sesioidea, Pyraloidea, and Noctuoidea. Larvae of these stout-bodied moths are leaf tiers.

Superfamily Thyridoidea

This entirely tropical to subtropical group of about 600 species is placed in the family THYRIDIDAE. Originally included in the Pyraloidea, the thyridids were removed from this

FIGURE 9.30. Pyraloidea. The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Pyralidae). (A) Adult; and (B) larva. [From L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.]

superfamily after the realization that they lacked abdominal tympanal organs. The larvae are miners in twigs and stems, or build leaf shelters.

Superfamily Pyraloidea

All members of this group are included in the largest lepidopteran family, the cosmopolitan PYRALIDAE (25,000 species), characterized by the presence of a tympanal organ on the first abdominal segment. Species occupy a wide range of habitats, both terrestrial and aquatic. Many are miners, using all plant parts, some build shelters among leaves or mosses, a few are case builders, and others are associated with other insects, for example, as inquilines in nests of Hymenoptera and predators of scale insects. Not surprisingly, a large number are pests. The grass moths (CRAMBINAE), whose larvae bore into stems, include Chilo suppressalis, the rice-stem borer, and Diatraea saccharalis (Figure 9.30), the sugarcane borer. The GALLERIINAE include the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, which lives in beehives. In the large subfamily PYRAUSTINAE, the larvae build a web among leaves and fruits. Important pests belonging to this group are Pyrausta (= Ostrinia) nubilalis, the European corn borer, which attacks maize, and various webworms belonging to the genera Loxostege and Diaphania. Among the PHYCITINAE are both pest and beneficial species: Ephestia,Cadra, and Plodia include species that are stored-products pests, while Cactoblastis cactorum is among the best-known biological control agents (see Chapter 24, Section 2.3 and Figure 24.1).

Superfamily Geometroidea

Geometroidea form an extremely large and cosmopolitan group with more than 20,000 species, about 10% of which are found in North America. Adults have abdominal tympanal organs. In most species adults and larvae are extremely well camouflaged in their

FIGURE 9.31. Geometroidea. The spring cankerworm, Paleacrita vernata (Geometridae). (A) Male; (B) female; and (C) larva. [A, C, after W. J. Holland, 1920, The Moth Book, Doubleday and Co., Inc. B, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.]

FIGURE 9.31. Geometroidea. The spring cankerworm, Paleacrita vernata (Geometridae). (A) Male; (B) female; and (C) larva. [A, C, after W. J. Holland, 1920, The Moth Book, Doubleday and Co., Inc. B, from L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment