Info

aFrom Resistant Arthropod Database (2004)

bCyclod., cyclodiene;OCL, other chlorohydrocarbons;OP, organophosphate;Carb., carbamate;Pyr., pyrethroid; Fum., fumigant. cMedVet., medical and veterinary pests;Agr., agricultural pests;Benef., predators, parasitoids, honey producers, etc.

aFrom Resistant Arthropod Database (2004)

bCyclod., cyclodiene;OCL, other chlorohydrocarbons;OP, organophosphate;Carb., carbamate;Pyr., pyrethroid; Fum., fumigant. cMedVet., medical and veterinary pests;Agr., agricultural pests;Benef., predators, parasitoids, honey producers, etc.

of the mechanism of resistance.) Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (San Jose scale) is credited with being the first recorded species to develop resistance to an insecticide (lime sulfur) in 1908, less than 30 years after use of the insecticide began. The house fly was the first species resistant to a synthetic insecticide (DDT in 1946), and by 1989 the number of species showing some resistance had reached more than 500, just over half of which are agricultural pests. Interestingly, between 1989 and 2003 the number of resistant species increased by only 32 (Resistant Arthropod Database, 2004). Several reasons may be suggested for this slow down in the appearance of resistant species: (1) Better use of insecticides as a result of both integrated pest management and resistance management; (2) highly diverse chemistry (and hence distinct modes of action) of currently used insecticides; (3) reduced funding for (hence less study of) resistance research; and (4) some degree of resistance has already developed in most of the world's worst arthropod pests (which number about 550 species) (Mark E. Whalon, pers. comm.).

Depending on the method of resistance developed by a species against an insecticide, species frequently have resistance to other chemicals of the same group (class resistance) or even to chemicals of other groups (cross resistance). For example, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) is resistant to 69 insecticides, while the house fly, German cockroach, and Colorado potato beetle are each resistant to more than 40 insecticides (Resistant Arthropod Database, 2004).

Numerous potential tactics for the management of resistance have been proposed, one or more of which may be appropriate in a specific pest situation. They include (1) increasing use of non-insecticidal strategies (i.e., an integrated approach to pest control; see Section

TABLE 24.5. Number of Species of Arthropods with Reported Cases of Resistance

Through 2003°

Pesticide Groupé Importancec

DDT Cyclod. OCL OP Carb. Pyr. Fum. Other Med./Vet. Agr. Benef. Other Total

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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