Superfamily Axioidea chapter 9 The affinities of this extremely small group (10 species, in the single family AXIIDAE)

of moths restricted to the Mediterranean area remain obscure. Earlier workers included them in the Geometroidea on the basis of their supposed tympanal organs. However, these organs occur on abdominal segment 7 (not segment 1 as in geometroids) and, in any event, may not have a sensory function.

Superfamily Calliduloidea

Calliduloidea form a small group of two families, CALLIDULIDAE (100 species) and PTEROTHYSANIDAE (10 species), whose members are diurnal moths with butterflylike habits (e.g., they rest with the wings folded vertically over the body). Both families are primarily oriental in distribution.

Superfamily Hedyloidea

The 35 species of the monogeneric (Macrosoma) family HEDYLIDAE were included originally in the geometroid group. However, Scoble (1986) has presented a strong argument for their inclusion in the "Rhopalocera" as the sister group of the Papilionoidea, though they do not possess the clubbed antennae that traditionally characterize the butterflies. The group is found in tropical America, including Cuba and Trinidad. Adults are medium-sized and mostly nocturnal, though some do fly in daylight. Larvae are leaf feeders, characteristically lying on or alongside the midrib or secondary veins.

Superfamily Hesperioidea

Hesperioidea and members of the next superfamily constitute the butterflies. This homogeneous superfamily of just over 3000 species includes the single family HESPERIIDAE (Figure 9.32), commonly known as skippers for their jerky erratic flight. Most species are diurnal, a few crepuscular. The larvae construct shelters by joining or rolling leaves, emerging

FIGURE 9.32. Hesperioidea. The common sooty wing, Pholisora catullus (Hesperiidae). (From L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp, 1972, The Common Insects of North America. Copyright 1972 by L. A. Swan and C. S. Papp. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.]

at night to feed. In most subfamilies larvae feed on grasses and other monocotyledonous 291

plants; in others, dicotyledonous plants, notably legumes, are preferred.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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