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Adult. Fleas are highlymodifiedfor their ectoparasitic life, a feature that has made de- the panorpoid termination of their relationships with other Insecta difficult. The adults, which are between 1 ORDERS

and 10 mm in length, are highly compressed laterally and heavily sclerotized. The many hairs and spines on the body are directed posteriorly to facilitate forward movement. The head is broadly attached to the body and carries the short three-segmented antennae in grooves. Typical compound eyes are absent; however, the two "lateral ocelli" that occur are considered by some authors to be highly modified compound eyes and not homologous with the ocelli of other endopterygotes. The mouthparts are modified for piercing the host's skin and sucking blood. Mandibles are absent, the laciniae are elongate and together with the epipharynx form a piercing organ that rests in the grooved prementum. The thoracic segments are freely mobile and increase in size posteriorly. The legs are adapted for jumping and clinging to the host. The coxae are very large, and the tarsi terminate in a pair of strong claws. Ten abdominal segments occur, the last three of which are modified for reproductive purposes, especially in males, where the sternum and tergum of the ninth segment form clasping organs.

Both the cibarium and pharynx are strongly muscular for sucking up blood. The small proventriculus is fitted with cuticular rods (acanthae) that may serve to break up blood cells. The midgut (stomach) is large and fills most of the abdomen. Four Malpighian tubules arise at the anterior end of the short hindgut. The nervous system is primitive and includes three thoracic and seven or eight abdominal ganglia. As in Mecoptera, there is typically one more abdominal ganglion in males than in females. The testes are fusiform and are connected to a small seminal vesicle by means of fine vasa deferentia. The ovaries contain from four to eight panoistic ovarioles (polytrophic in Hystrichopsyllidae).

Larva and Pupa. Larvae (Figure 9.20D) are white and vermiform. They have a well-developed head that in some respects resembles that of nematocerous Diptera. The mouthparts, though modified, are of the biting type. There are 13 body segments, but the distinction between thoracic and abdominal regions is poor. Pupae are adecticous and exarate and enclosed in a cocoon. Traces of wings can be seen on the pupae of some species.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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