The relationships of the nine families included in the Carnoidea (Chloropoidea) remain the panorpoid debatable, and frequently some of the families are placed in the Opomyzoidea or Ephy-droidea. The great majority of species belong to the cosmopolitan families MILICHIIDAE (300 species) and CHLOROPIDAE (2000 species). Adult milichiids are found at flowers; some species ride on spiders and predatory insects such as asilid flies and reduviid bugs, helping themselves to the juices that exude from their host's prey. Larvae are saprophagous or dung feeders, including some that live in the fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants. Adult chloropids typically occur in vast numbers on foliage, and mostly feed on sap exudates, honeydew, etc. However, the so-called eye gnats (species of Hippeletes and Siphunculina) are attracted to wounds and secretions of the eyes, nose, lips, and skin and are vectors of conjunctivitis and skin diseases. Larvae may be saprophagous or phytophagous and some of the latter are important pests, for example, Oscinella frit (European frit fly) (Figure 9.16B) on cereals.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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