Insect Diversity

FIGURE 2.6. A possible phylogeny of the insect orders. Numbers indicate major evolutionary lines: (1) Pale-optera; (2) Neoptera; (3) Plecopteroids; (4) Orthopteroids; (5) Blattoids; (6) Hemipteroids; (7) Endopterygotes; (8) Neuropteroids-Coleoptera; (9) Panorpoids-Hymenoptera; (10) Panorpoids; (11) Antliophora; (12) Amphies-menoptera.

the Planoneoptera (Figures 2.5C and 2.6). The Pliconeoptera corresponds approximately to the Polyneoptera of Martynov but excludes the plecopteroids and the Zoraptera, and a few fossil orders considered planoneopteran by Hamilton. The Planoneoptera includes the Paraneoptera and Oligoneoptera of Martynov's scheme, plus the plecopteroids and Zoraptera. In other words, both schools agree that there are three major groups within the Neoptera but differ with regard to the relationships among these groups.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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