Insect Pests of Stored Products

Almost any stored material, whether of plant or animal origin, may be subject to attack by insects, especially species of Coleoptera (larvae and adults) and Lepidoptera (larvae only). Among the products that are frequently damaged are grains and their derivatives, beans, peas, nuts, fruit, meat, dairy products, leather, and woolen goods. In addition, wood and its products may be spoiled by termites or ants. Again, readers should refer to the appropriate chapters describing these groups for specific examples.

Estimates of the worldwide postharvest losses of foodstuffs (especially stored grains) may be as high as 20%, of which about one-half is attributable to insects and the rest to microorganisms, rodents, and birds. Even in well-developed countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia where storage conditions are more adequate and pesticide treatment is available, losses of 5% to 10% are estimated for stored grains. Given a worldwide estimate for the production of wheat, coarse grains, and rice as about 1.5 billion tonnes in 1981-1982, perhaps as much as 150 million tons may have been lost as a result of insect damage. The nature of the damage caused by stored products pests varies. Grain and other seed pests not only eat economically valuable quantities of food, but cause spoilage by contamination with feces, odors, webbing, corpses, and shed skins, and by creating heat and moisture damage that permits the growth of microorganisms (Wilbur and Mills, in Pfadt, 1985). Pests of household goods such as clothing and furniture principally cause damage by spoilage, for example, by tunneling, defecating, and creating odors.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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