Insect Semiochemicals

Insects interact with other members of their species, as well as with other organisms, by means of a bewildering array of so-called semiochemicals. When the interaction is intraspecific, the chemical messages are called pheromones. Chemicals involved in interspecific interaction, allelochemicals, fall into two major categories: allomones provoke a response that favors the emitter, whereas kairomones induce a response favorable to the receiver. Perhaps not surprisingly, a given semiochemical may fit into more than one of these groups; for example, pheromones emitted by prey insects may also function as kairomones by attracting predators and parasitoids. It should be understood that in interspecific interactions insects may be either the emitter or the receiver of the allelochemical signal. The latter is especially important for phytophagous insects, for which plant-released chemicals may be a major deterrent against insects attack or a specific cue by which the insect recognizes its host (Chapter 23, Section 2.3.1). In this chapter only pheromones, and kairomones and allomones released by insects will be considered.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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