Insects And Humans

IGRs that mimic molting hormone have been investigated less intensely, probably due 753

to their greater structural complexity and relative instability (Dhadialla etal., 1998). Nevertheless, commercial products are available, for example, tebufenozide and halofenozide, which are used against lepidopteran pests and pests of turf grass and ornamentals, respectively. Significantly, tebufenozide is generally non-toxic to non-Lepidoptera, including a range of predators and parasitoids (Dhadialla et al., 1998).

With the discovery and identification of pheromones (Chapter 13, Section 4.1) and their mimics (more than 1000 are now known), there were high hopes for the development of new, effective and environmentally safe methods of pest control. As initially envisaged, the pheromones, especially sex attractants and aggregation pheromones, potentially might be used in the following pest management situations: (1) for monitoring pest population density; (2) as lures to attract pests into traps; and (3) for permeating the environment, so that individuals are unable to locate mates. For the first of these possibilities, pheromones have been an outstanding success and are now an integral component of many pest management programs, with commercial preparations available for more than 250 species. For some species, especially Coleoptera, the pheromone is used in association with a synergist kairomone (Chapter 13, Section 4.2); for example, the pheromone of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, is used together with myrcene, a volatile material produced by the host tree. The second and third possibilities, the "direct" control options, on the other hand, have met with much less success, principally because of the high costs involved for the user but also because of reluctance on the part of industry to produce materials with such specificity of action. Nonetheless, commercial mass-trapping systems are available for 19 species (including 12 Lepidoptera) and mating-disruption formulations for almost 30 species (all Lepidoptera) (Ridgway etal., 1990; Shorey, in Pimentel, 1991, Vol. 2; Cardé and Minks, 1995; Suckling and Karg, in Rechcigl and Rechcigl, 2000). The majority of these are used against pests of high-value crops, including stone fruits, berries, apples, grapes, and tomatoes.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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