Insects That Affect Humans Directly

A large number of insect species may be external, or temporary internal, parasites of humans. Some of these are specific to humans, for example, the body louse (Pediculus humanus) and pubic louse (Phthirus pubis), but most have a varied number of alternate

FIGURE 24.4. Summer transmission cycle of the western equine encephalomyelitis virus in the Central Valley of California. The mosquito, Culex tarsalis,is theprimary vector of thevirus, andhouse finches andhouse sparrows the primary amplifying hosts (hosts in which the virus multiplies). Secondary (less important) amplifying hosts include other passerine birds, chickens, and pheasants. Another transmission cycle involves blacktail jackrabbits, which are sometimes bitten by C. tarsalis, and Aedes melaniman. Humans and horses, as well as ground squirrels, tree squirrels, and some other wild mammals become infected but do not contribute significantly to virus amplification. [From J. L. Hardy, 1987, The ecology of western equine encephalomyelitis virus in the Central Valley of California, 1945-1985, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 37(Suppl.):18S-32S. By permission of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.]

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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