Introduction

This chapter deals with the following 10 orders: Plecoptera, Embioptera, Dictyoptera, Isoptera, Grylloblattodea, Dermaptera, Phasmida, Orthoptera, Zoraptera, and the recently established Mantophasmatodea. Members of these orders can be distinguished from other exopterygotes [the hemipteroid orders (Chapter 8)] by the following features: generalized biting mouthparts, wing venation usually well developed with numerous crossveins (though less netlike than that of Paleoptera), cerci present, terminalia of male may be asymmetrical and reduced, many Malpighian tubules, and generalized nervous system with several discrete abdominal ganglia. However, as discussed in Chapter 2, the existence of these common features should not be taken as confirmation that these orders constitute a monophyletic group.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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