This chapter will deal with the biotic environment of insects, which is composed of all other organisms that affect insects' ability to survive and multiply. In other words, the interactions of insects with other organisms (of the same and other species) will be discussed. Food is the most obvious and important biotic factor, and insects are involved in a wide spectrum of trophic relationships with other organisms, both living and dead. As the majority of insects feed on plant material in one form or another, they are key components in the flow of energy through the ecosystem. However, other interactions are known that, though not as easily recognized as feeding, are nonetheless important regulators of insect distribution and abundance.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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