Embryonic development begins with the first mitotic division of the zygote nucleus and terminates at hatching. Not surprisingly, in view of their diversity of form, function, and life history, insects exhibit a variety of embryonic developmental patterns, though certain evolutionary trends are apparent. Eggs of most species contain a considerable amount of yolk. In exopterygote eggs there is such a preponderance of yolk that the egg cytoplasm is readily obvious only when it forms a small island surrounding the nucleus. In eggs of endopterygotes, the yolk:cytoplasm ratio is much lower than that of exopterygotes and the cytoplasm can be seen as a conspicuous network connecting the central island with a layer of periplasm lying beneath the vitelline membrane. This trend toward reduction in the relative amount of yolk in the egg, carried to an extreme in certain parasitic Hymenoptera and viviparous Diptera (Cecidomyiidae), whose eggs are yolkless and receive nutrients from their surroundings, has some important consequences. Broadly speaking, the eggs of endopterygotes are smaller (size measured in relation to the body size of the laying insect) and develop more rapidly than those of exopterygotes. The increased quantity of cytoplasm leads to the more rapid formation of more and larger cells at the yolk surface that facilitates the formation of a larger embryonic area from which development can take place. Compared with that of exoptery-gotes, development of endopterygotes is streamlined and simplified. There has been, as Anderson (1972b, p. 229) put it, "reduction or elimination of ancestral irrelevancies," which when taken to an extreme, seen in the apocritan Hymenoptera and cyclorrhaph Diptera, results in the formation of a structurally simple larva that hatches within a short time of egg laying. However, superimposed on this process of short-circuiting may be developmental specializations associated with an increasing dissimilarity of juvenile and adult habits.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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