Animals constantly monitor both their internal and their external environment and make the necessary adjustments in order to maintain themselves optimally and thus to develop and reproduce at the maximum rate. The adjustments they make may be immediate and obvious, for example, flight from predators, or longer-term, for example, entry into diapause to avoid impending adverse conditions. The nature of the response depends, obviously, on the nature of the stimulus. Only very rarely does a stimulus act directly on the effector system; almost always a stimulus is received by an appropriate sensory structure and taken to the central nervous system, which "determines" an appropriate response under the circumstances. When a response is immediate, that is, achieved in a matter of seconds or less, it is the nervous system that transfers the message to the effector system. Such responses are usually temporary in nature. Delayed responses are achieved through the use of chemical messages (viz., hormones) and are generally longer-lasting. The nervous and endocrine systems of an individual are, then, the systems that coordinate the response with the stimulus. Semio-chemicals, which constitute another chemical regulating system, coordinate behavior and development among individuals. They comprise pheromones (intraspecific coordinators) and allelochemicals (interspecific coordinators), which include kairomones and allomones.

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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